Software updating

At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU).

A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state.

Ubuntu (apt), Cent OS, Fedora and Red Hat (rpm/YUM) Linux server administration and desktop systems adminstration are covered in this tutorial.

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If your computer is using Personal Hotspot on the i OS device that you’re updating, connect your computer to a different Wi-Fi or Ethernet network before you update.

The first theory about software—prior to creation of computers as we know them today—was proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem (decision problem).

This eventually led to the creation of the twin academic fields of computer science and software engineering, which both study software and its creation.

For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user.

An instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the user.

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